Reading Stats with Zero Quants Skills

What’s the difference between prevalence and incidence? Does it matter? What’s a p-value? Confidence interval? Point estimate? Coefficient? Effect size? What is an odds ratio? Is it different from a risk ratio? And why do stats people keep “adjusting” these ratios? Should they be doing that? What are all these statistical models, and why are people so impressed when they are “structural” or “hierarchical?” Shouldn’t feminists challenge hierarchy? How do I make any sense of this stuff?